Intracellular Probes and Drug Delivery
Controlling the intracellular localization of synthetic molecules is essential for effective drug development. Nonetheless, rational control over intracellular trafficking of small molecules has remained a challenge. The Kelley lab has engineered peptide-based conjugates to deduce rules for manipulating intracellular localization of bioactive molecules. These compounds also provide useful tools for the cellular delivery of chemically or biologically active species and can be used to study organelle-specific processes.
We have used these vectors to delivery a variety of bioactive cargo to mitochondria. Mitochondria are very interesting compartments within the eukaryotic cell with a unique evolutionary history. The bacterial origin of mitochondria and retention of a genome differentiate this organelle from others within the cell. Because of the impermeable nature of the mitochondrial membranes, genetic manipulation of the mitochondrial is difficult and as a result little is know about the processes within the organelle that involve nucleic acids.
We recently developed a peptide-based delivery vector that can carry reactive cargo into the mitochondria of live mammalian cells. By attaching agents that generate reactive oxygen species or alkylation damage, we can site-specifically probe the cellular response to these insults and deconvolute this response from that resulting from nuclear damage. This approach is revealing new insights into how mitochondrial DNA damage is responded to, and has also indicated that the makeup of mitochondria make them susceptible to other types of biomolecular damage.
"Mitochondrial DNA Repair and Replication Proteins Revealed by Targeted Chemical Probes." S. Wisnovsky, S.R. Jean, S.O. Kelley, Nature Chemical Biology, 2016, 12, 567-573. link
"Tuning the Intracellular Bacterial Targeting of Peptidic Vectors." E. Lei, M. P. Pereira, S.O. Kelley, Angew. Chem. Intl. Ed., 2013, 52, 9660-9663. link
"Targeted Delivery of Doxorubicin of Doxorubicin to Mitochondria.” G. Chamberlain, D.V. Tulumello, S.O. Kelley, ACS Chemical Biology, 2013, 8, 1389-1395. link
"Targeting Mitochondrial DNA with a Platinum-Based Anticancer Agent." S.P. Wisnovsky, J.J. Wilson, R. J. Radford, M.P. Pereira, M. Chan, R. Laposa, S.J. Lippard, S.O. Kelley, Chem. Biol., 2013, 20, 1323-1328. link
"Maximizing the Therapeutic Window of an Antimicrobial Drug by Imparting Mitochondrial Sequestration in Human Cells " M.P. Pereira, S.O. Kelley, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2011, 133, 3260. link
“Mitochondria-Penetrating Peptides.” K.L. Horton, K.M. Stewart, S.B. Fonseca, Q. Guo, S.O. Kelley, Chemistry & Biology, 2008, 15, 375. link